A brain hemorrhage is a type of stroke in the brain. It is caused when an artery in the brain ruptures and there is a local bleeding in the surrounding tissues. This bleeding also kills the brain cells so is very dangerous. Brain hemorrhage is also known as the cerebral hemorrhage, intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhages.
When the blood from a shock aggravates brain tissue it causes inflammation this is known as the cerebral edema. The blood here collects into the mass called hematoma. This condition increases pressure on the nearby brain tissues. Also, there is a reduced vital blood flow and this kills brain cells.
Cause of brain hemorrhage
There are several risk factors and cause of brain hemorrhage. The most common include the following:
- Head trauma: injury is the most common cause of bleeding in the brain for those people who are under the age of 50.
- High blood pressure: This chronic condition over a long period of time weakens the blood vessel walls. So the untreated high blood pressure is a major preventable cause of brain hemorrhages.
- An aneurysm: There is weakening in the wall of the blood vessel which causes swelling. The wall of the blood vessel can burst and bleed into the brain, causing a stroke.
- Blood vessel abnormalities: weakness in blood vessels in and around the brain
- Amyloid angiopathy: It’s an abnormality of blood vessel walls that occurs with aging and high blood pressure
- Blood or bleeding disorders: Hemophilia and sickle cell anemia can contribute to the low level of blood platelets
- Liver disease
- Brain tumors
Symptoms of a brain hemorrhage
The symptoms of a brain hemorrhage can differ from person to person. They depend vastly on the location of the bleeding, severity of the bleeding and the amount of the tissue affected. Symptoms may progressively worsen or suddenly appear.
- Sudden severe headache
- Weakness in arm and leg
- Nausea or vomiting
- Decreased alertness
- Change in vision
- Tingling or numbness
- Difficulty speaking
- Difficulty swallowing
- Loss of fine motor skill
- Loss of coordination
- Loss of balance
- Abnormal sense of taste
- Loss of consciousness
Treatment of brain hemorrhage
A doctor can determine which part of the brain is affected based on your symptoms. Doctors may run a variety of imaging tests like CT scan or MRI, which revel internal bleeding or blood accumulation. A neurological exam or eye exam can also show the swelling of the optic nerve. A lumbar puncture is usually not performed and it may be dangerous and make things worse. Certain medication may be prescribed which include painkillers, corticosteroids or diuretics.